Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 42 (4), pp. 251260, 1996

Title: New species of Microzetidae (Acari: Oribatida) from Mexico

Authors: Mahunka, S. and J. G. Palacios-Vargas

Authors' addresses: Department of Zoology, Hungarian Natural History Museum, H1088 Budapest, Baross u. 13, Hungary,
Laboratorio de Ecología y Sistematíca de Microartrópodos, Depto. Biología, Fac. Ciencias, UNAM. 04510 México, D. F., Mexico

Abstract: Abstract: Descriptions of four new microzetid (Oribatida) species Acaroceras oaxacanus, Kalyptrazetes lupitae, Protozetes clavatus and Schalleria mexicana (Microzetidae) are given. With 17 figures.

Key words: Oribatida, Microzetidae, new species, Mexico, cave

Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 42 (4), pp. 261270, 1996

Title: New Amphistome (Trematoda) genera and species from Amazonian serrasalmid fishes, Myleus (Myloplus)

Authors: Thatcher, V. E., Sey, O. and Jégu, M.

Authors' addresses: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazõnia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Kuwait, Kuwait
ORSTOM, Paris, France

Abstract: Two new genera and three new species of amphistome trematodes (Cladorchiidae) are described from Amazonian serrasalmid fish. These species appear to be characteristically found in the subgenus Myleus (Myloplus) since they are nearly always found together in the three species in this subgenus (rubripinnis, asterias and an undescribed species). They have not been found in four other species of Myleus caught in the same localities. The new genera and species are: Inpamphistoma papillatum gen. et sp. n., Annelamphistoma elegans gen. et sp. n. and Dadayius pacuensis sp. n. The two new genera have ventral surfaces that are convex and covered with papillae which would appear to separate them from all other known genera among the amphistomes. They differ from each other by body shape and the number of muscular puckers in the body wall. Inpamphistoma is flattened, strongly concave dorsally and has one pair of muscular puckers. Annelamphistoma, on the other hand, is only slightly concave dorsally and is provided with five pairs of puckers. SEM studies showed that the ventral papillae are domed to conical and are neither cililated nor branched. Additionally, circles of domed papillae with pores are found around the mouth of Inpamphistoma. Dadayius pacuensis sp. nov. has the transverse tegumental folds in the botto mof the acetabular cavity that characterize the genus. The new species has a massive acetabulum which serves to distinguish it from the type and only species. It also differs from the type in being only one-half as large. The three amphistomes described here were found together in nearly every adult specimen of fish belonging to Myleus (Myloplus) and are as widely distributed geographically as their hosts.

Key words: fish parasites, parasite markers, trematodes, amphistomes, serrasalmids

Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 42 (4), pp. 271279, 1996

Title: Body mass and fat load of autumn migrating Sedge Warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) in relation to age in South Hungary

Authors: J. Gyurácz and L. Bank

Authors' addresses: Department of Zoology, Berzsenyi College, Szombathely, P.O.Box 170. H9701, Hungary,
Local Group of County Baranya, BirdLife Hungary, Pécs, Felsõmalom u. 22, H7621, Hungary

Abstract: Body mass change and fat accumulation of Sedge Warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) on autumn migration were studied at the Sumony Bird Observatory in the southern part of Hungary. The adult and juvenile birds differed with regard to fat loads upon first and last capture and fat deposition rate. Adult Sedge Warblers started accumulating fat earlier than did juveniles and adults departed with higher fat loads than juveniles. An average juvenile Sedge Warbler with wing length 69 mm and body mass 15 g should have a fat content 27%. This fat reserve should theoretically be sufficient for a 1389 km flight. This implies that with a south migration this bird should be able to cross the Mediterranean Sea from Sumony in a non-stop flight.

Key words: body mass, fat load, migration, Sedge Warbler

Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 42 (4), pp. 281287, 1996

Title: A comparison of extraction methods of free-living terrestrial nematodes

Author: P. Nagy

Author's address: Department of Zoology and Ecology, Gödöllõ Agricultural University, H2103 Gödöllõ, Páter K. 1, Hungary

Abstract: There are several methods used to extract free-living nematodes from soil. During a comparative study of efficiencies the following methods were tested: 1) Baermann-funnel technique; 2) Cobb's modified decanting and sieving method; 3) decantation and cottonwool filter method; 4) Seinhorst's two flasks technique; 5) Oostenbrink elutriator.
Concerning total numbers of extracted nematodes, the decantation and cottonwool filter technique and the Oostenbrink elutriator were the most effective. These two techniques can absolutely be recommended for use, the choice between them should depend on the experimental profile and the financial sources of a given laboratory. Seinhorst's two flasks method also gave significantly higher results than other two techniques tested. Results obtained by Baermann-funnels were comparable to other methods only in terms of relative proportion of extracted Mononchida. Concerning any other parameter, Baermann-funnel technique gave much poorer results.

Key words: free-living terrestrial nematodes, extraction methods, efficiency

Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 42 (4), pp. 289330, 1996

Title: Biogeography and evolution of oreal Lepidoptera in the Palaearctic

Author: Z. Varga

Author's address: Department of Zoology and Evolution, Kossuth L. University, H4010 Debrecen, Hungary,

Abstract: The concept of the oreal fauna can be defined as that typifying orographically caused non-arboreal biomes. It is considered here as a major biogeographical unit in its own right, not only as a component of the oreotundral fauna. The oreal fauna is correlated with orographically determined non-arboreal ecosystems and its members have, as a rule, insular, often strictly endemic or disjunct areas of distribution. Its chorological centres can be regarded mostly as only potential centres of dispersal. They can be recognised by accumulated occurrence of stenochorous species and by the high species-diversity of some typical genera. The oreal fauna can be subdivided into an alpine type, as the faunal type of humid high mountains with prevailing glacial morphology and with strong connections to the tundral zonobiome, and xeromontane type, as the faunal type of arid high mountains with prevailing physical weathering and with manifold connections to the eremic zonobiome. The formation of the alpine faunal type is closely connected to the Quaternary glaciations. Its history can be characterised by long-distance translocations and disjunctions, resulting in a great number of arctic-alpine species. On the contrary, the xeromontane faunal type displays a more continuous evolutionary history extending far back into preglacial times and also demonstrates a high potential for speciation in such groups which are adapted to the cold-arid conditions. A major part of the xeromontane fauna appears to have been stationary with a great number of relict-like species, especially in some core areas of Central and Inner Asia. Xeromontane species could only populate Central and Northern Europe during the extreme continental late-glacial and early post-glacial phases. In Europe and adjacent areas, most xeromontane species occur in the summer-dry Mediterranean high mountains from the Atlas to Asia Minor. The xeromontane fauna can be subdivided into a W Palaearctic (Mediterranean-xeromontane) and a Central- and Inner-Asiatic (Continental) subtype. This bifurcation arose through the influence of a "xeromontane filter" on a set of ancestral species coming mostly from seasonally humid, southeastern Asiatic mountains. Thus, the fauna of subtropical, monsoonic orobiomes (e.g. in southern China and the Himalaya region) displays a somewhat intermediate, less differentiated (ancestral) character. The core areas of allopatric speciation, dispersal and evolutionary history of Palaearctic xeromontane Noctuidae are considered.

Key words: biogeography, oreal fauna, core areas, alpine type, xeromontane type, Palaearctic xeromontane Noctuidae

Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 42 (4), pp. 331340, 1996

Title: Observations on the mate recognition and copulatory behaviour of Aeshna cyanea (Müller) (Anisoptera: Aeshnidae)

Author: A. Ambrus

Author's address: Jurisich u. 16, H9495 Kópháza, Hungary,

Abstract: Two different flight patterns of Aeshna cyanea (Müller) were studied at the mating place with the application of capture-mark-release techniques. The mate recognition ability of the males was investigated experimentally with the fishing-line technique and females in hand: the male turned out to recognize the sitting (egglaying) female with a special female-searching flight. The males tried to copulate with a tethered female, a female held in hand and even a male held in hand. Super 8 mm movie film was taken on certain acts of the life cycle of A. cyanea, including the recognition of sitting females and other acts of the mating. The hypothesis of the dual function of the precopulatory sperm translocation as a tool of mate recognition is detailed here. Steps of the hypothetical mate recognition system are drafted for closely related aeshnid, gomphid, corduliid and cordulegasterid species based on preserved insects.

Key words: Aeshna cyanea, Odonata, mate recognition, copulatory behaviour