Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 66 (4), pp. 309–317, 2020

Title: Natural and artificial scents do not increase egg rejection rates of model brood parasitic eggs by American Robins (Turdus migratorius)

Author: Mark E. Hauber

Author's address: Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior, School of Integrative Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801, USA; E-mail:

Abstract: Hosts of obligate avian brood parasites can diminish or eliminate the costs of parasitism by rejecting foreign eggs from the nests. A vast literature demonstrates that visual and/or tactile cues can be used to recognize and reject natural or model eggs from the nests of diverse host species. However, data on olfaction-based potential egg recognition cues are both sparse and equivocal: experimentally-applied, naturally-relevant (heterospecific, including parasitic) scents do not appear to increase egg rejection rates in two host species, whereas unnatural scents (human and tobacco scents) do so in one host species. Here I assessed the predictions that (i) human handling of mimetically-painted model eggs would increase rejection rates, and (ii) applying unnatural or natural scents to mimetically or non-mimetically painted model eggs alters these eggs’ respective rejection rates relative to controls. I studied wild American Robins (Turdus migratorius), a robust rejecter species of the eggs of obligate brood parasitic Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater). There was no statistical evidence to support either prediction, whereas poorer color-mimicry was still a predicted cause of greater egg rejection in this data set. Nonetheless, future studies could focus on this and other host species and using these and different methods to apply and maintain the scenting of model eggs longer to more directly test hosts’ use of potential olfactory cues in the foreign-egg rejection process.

Key words: egg rejection, olfaction, parasitism, recognition systems, American Robins, Turdus migratorius.

DOI: 10.17109/AZH.66.4.309.2020

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Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 66 (4), pp. 319–327, 2020

Title: Parasitic nematodes of reptiles (lizards and snakes) in the Monte Desert of Argentina

Authors: Gabriel Natalio Castillo1,2, Juan Carlos Acosta1,2, Cynthia Jessica González-Rivas1, Geraldine Ramallo3

Authors' addresses: 1Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de San Juan Av. Ignacio de la Roza 590, 5402, San Juan, Argentina; E-mails:;
2Gabinete de Investigación DIBIOVA (Diversidad y Biología de Vertebrados del Árido) Universidad Nacional de San Juan. Av. Ignacio de la Roza 590, 5402, San Juan, Argentina
3Instituto de Invertebrados. Fundación Miguel Lillo, San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina; E-mail:

Abstract: Nematodes are little known in the Argentine herpetofauna. In order to increase and contribute to the knowledge of parasitism in reptiles, we studied nematodes found in three species of lizards (Aurivela longicauda, Liolaemus darwinii, and L. riojanus) and one species of snake (Philodryas trilineata) from the Monte desert of center-west Argentina. We registered generalist nematodes commonly found in reptiles, belonging to three taxa: Physaloptera sp. (larvae), Physaloptera retusa (adults) (Physalopteridae) and Parapharyngodon riojensis (Pharyngodonidae) (adults). Liolaemus darwinii had the lowest prevalence of Physaloptera sp. (larvae) (30%) and a mean intensity of 1.3±0.4 (1–2). The lizard A. longicauda had the highest parasitic diversity (2 taxa) with prevalence (50%) and mean intensity (4±3.5) of Physaloptera retusa (adults), also with prevalence (12.5%) and mean intensity (20±0) of Parapharyngodon riojensis (adults). Due to the low number of studied specimens, precise conclusions cannot be drawn for Liolaemus riojanus (n = 2) and P. trilineata (n = 1). However, because the hosts were previously fixed, the results probably may do not represent real infection patterns. The four reptile species correspond to new host records from Argentina, and the information provided contributes to the knowledge of endoparasitism in reptiles of the Argentine Monte region.

Key words: parasitic nematodes, Parapharyngodon riojensis, Physaloptera retusa, Liolaemus, Aurivela, Philodryas, lizard, snake.

DOI: 10.17109/AZH.66.4.319.2020

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Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 66 (4), pp. 329–343, 2020

Title: Two new species of insect phoretic Siculobata (Paraleius) (Acari, Oribatida, Scheloribatidae) from U.S.A. and Trinidad

Authors: Sergey G. Ermilov1 and Barry M. OConnor2

Authors' addresses: 1Tyumen State University, Institute of Environmental and Agricultural Biology (X-BIO), Lenina str. 25, 625000 Tyumen, Russia; E-mail:
2Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (Museum of Zoology), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; E-mail:

Abstract: Two new species of oribatid mites of the subgenus Siculobata (Paraleius), phoretic on Insecta (Coleoptera and Diptera), are described from the U.S.A. and Trinidad, based on adults. Siculobata (Paraleius) americana sp. n. differs from Siculobata (Paraleius) leontonycha (Berlese, 1910) by the presence of monodactylous legs and a slightly modified claw on all pretarsi. Siculobata (Paraleius) trinidadensis sp. n. differs from S. (P.) americana sp. n. by the presence of sublamella, fusiform bothridial seta and a normal claw on pretarsi III, IV, and the absence of pedotectum II. Subgeneric morphological traits and an identification key to known species of Siculobata (Paraleius) are presented.

Key words: new species, Acari, Oribatida, Siculobata mites, systematics, morphology, phoresy, Holarctic and Neotropical regions.

DOI: 10.17109/AZH.66.4.329.2020

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Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 66 (4), pp. 345–360, 2020

Title: Extending the geographic distribution of Bryodrilus ehlersi (Annelida, Enchytraeidae): morphological and molecular comparison of Korean and European specimens

Authors: Hajnalka Nagy1, Klára Dózsa-Farkas2, Yong Hong3* and Tamás Felföldi4*

Authors' addresses: 1Department of Microbiology, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/C, Hungary; E-mail:
2Department of Systematic Zoology and Ecology, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/C, Hungary; E-mail:
3Department of Agricultural Biology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea; E-mail:
4Department of Microbiology, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/C, Hungary; E-mail:
*corresponding authors

Abstract: During the study of the enchytraeid fauna of South Korea, specimens were found, which were identified as Bryodrilus ehlersi based on their morphological characters. This was an unexpected result since this species is common in Northern and Central Europe but has not yet been found in the Far East. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene, the nuclear histone 3 gene and the nuclear ribosomal ITS region showed unambiguously that the specimens collected in South Korea represent a different evolutionary lineage. In this paper, the detailed morphological and molecular comparison of Bryodrilus ehlersi specimens collected from various sites and countries are presented. Although the Korean specimens could not be formally described as a different species due to the lack of studied specimens from the type locality, clear evidence of cryptic genetic diversity was found within Bryodrilus ehlersi.

Key words: Enchytraeidae, cryptic diversity, Bryodrilus ehlersi, South Korea, molecular taxonomy.

DOI: 10.17109/AZH.66.4.345.2020

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Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 66 (4), pp. 361–368, 2020

Title: Nannogermalus marmoratus: a new endemic big-eyed bug from New Caledonia (Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Geocoridae)

Authors: Péter Kóbor1 and Előd Kondorosy2

Authors' addresses: 1Department of Nature Conservation and Ecology, Herman Ottó Institute Non-profit Ltd., H-1223 Budapest, Park u. 2, Hungary; E-mail:,
2Department of Animal Science, Szent István University, Georgikon Faculty, H-8360 Keszthely, Deák street 16, Hungary; E-mail:

Abstract: Nannogermalus gen. nov. and its type-species Nannogermalus marmoratus sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Geocoridae: Geocorinae) is described from New Caledonia. The placement of the genus within the subfamily Geocorinae is discussed.

Key words: Heteroptera, Geocoridae, Lygaeoidea, New Caledonia, new genus, new species.

DOI: 10.17109/AZH.66.4.361.2020

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Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 66 (4), pp. 369–377, 2020

Title: Ladislavella occulta (Jackiewicz, 1959) – a species of aquatic snails new for Hungary with remarks on its distribution in Central and Eastern Europe

Author: Maxim V. Vinarski

Author's address: Laboratory of Macroecology & Biogeography of Invertebrates, Saint-Petersburg State University, Russian Federation; E-mail:

Abstract: A finding of the lymnaeid species Ladislavella occulta (Jackiewicz, 1959) [Mollusca: Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae] in Hungary is reported, which is the first record of this aquatic snail in the country. The shells of L. occulta were found in 1989 in the marsh area of the Bátorliget Nature Reserve. The current distribution of this species in Eastern and Central Europe is reviewed. It is hypothesized that L. occulta represents a relic species, whose origin may be traced back to the Pleistocene.

Key words: Ladislavella occulta, Lymnaeidae, aquatic snail, Hungary, fauna, Bátorliget Nature Reserve, Pleistocene relic.

DOI: 10.17109/AZH.66.4.369.2020

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Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 66 (4), pp. 379–392, 2020

Title: Agricultural trichothecene mycotoxin contamination affects the life-history and reduced glutathione content of Folsomia candida Willem (Collembola)

Authors: Borbála Szabó1,2*, Benjamin Bálint1, Miklós Mézes3,4** and Krisztián Balogh3,4

Authors' addresses: 1Szent István University, Department of Zoology and Animal Ecology, H-2100 Gödöllő, Páter K. u. 1, Hungary
2Centre for Ecological Research, Danube Research Institute, H-1113 Budapest, Karolina u. 29, Hungary; *E-mail:
3Szent István University, Department of Nutrition, H-2100 Gödöllő, Páter Károly u. 1, Hungary
4MTA-KE-SZIE Mycotoxins in the Food Chain Research Group, H-6400 Kaposvár, Guba Sándor u. 40, Hungary

Abstract: There is limited data available concerning the effect of T-2/HT-2 toxin or deoxynivalenol (DON) on invertebrates such as springtails, and no data on their life history and oxidative stress. Control maize and DON or T-2 toxin contaminated maize were fed to Folsomia candida with a toxin content of 16324 mg DON kg–1 or 671 mg T-2 kg–1 maize. Ten to twelve days old animals were investigated in a life-history test and a stress protein test. T-2 toxin did not affect Folsomia candida in any measured parameters. The DON exposed group showed decreased growth and reproduction, and a higher survival rate. DON treatment resulted in lower protein content, while reduced glutathione content was higher than in control. It suggests that DON activated the glutathione-related detoxification pathway, which possibly causes a higher survival rate. The results also suggest that the oral toxicity of DON or T-2 is lower than through physical contact. For that reason, DON and T-2 toxin contaminated maize is not suggested to be used as green manure in the native state. Alternative solutions could be using mycotoxin contaminated maize for biogas production, or after decontamination by bacterial strains, it can be used as organic fertilizer.

Key words: Folsomia, Collembola, trichothecene, life-history, mycotoxin, glutathione.

DOI: 10.17109/AZH.66.4.379.2020

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Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 66 (4), pp. 393–401, 2020

Title: Comparison of spring and summer clutches of Great Crested Grebes (Podiceps cristatus)

Authors: Josef Rajchard1, Josef Navrátil2, Ryan J. Frazier3, Eva Ježková4 and Kateřina Marková5

Authors' addresses: 1University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biological Studies Studentská 1668, CZ-370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
2University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biological Studies, Studentská 1668, CZ-370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic; E-mail:
3Weber State University, Department of Geosciences, 1299 Edvalson St., Dept. 1210, Ogden, UT 84408, USA; E-mail:
4University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biological Studies Studentská 1668, CZ-370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic; E-mail:
5Protected Landscape Area Český les, Náměstí republiky 287, CZ-348 06 Přimda, Czech Republic; E-mail:

Abstract: The intensively farmed fishponds of the Třeboň Basin in South Bohemia, Czech Republic, host a substantial number of Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus) pairs that nest later than the expected spring season. This may be associated with fishpond farming. Our work found no substantial difference between spring and summer egg characteristics and no differences between the number of eggs in spring and summer clutches. The high number of eggs in spring nests was significantly related to both decreasing distances between nests and decreasing number of nests on the fishpond. The increase of the number of eggs in summer nests was significantly related to the distance to the edge of littoral vegetation.

Key words: egg, Great Crested Grebe, Podiceps cristatus, nest, fishpond, habitat, clutch.

DOI: 10.17109/AZH.66.4.393.2020

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