Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 65 (4), pp. 323–334, 2019

Title: Reproduction inhibiting effects of deoxynivalenol or T-2 toxin contaminated maize on Folsomia candida (Collembola)

Authors: 1Borbála Szabó, 1Ramóna Kocsis and 2,3Miklós Mézes

Authors' addresses: 1Szent István University, Department of Zoology and Animal Ecology, H-2100 Gödöllő, Páter K. u. 1, Hungary; E-mail:
1*Szent István University, Department of Zoology and Animal Ecology, H-2100 Gödöllő, Páter K. u. 1, Hungary; E-mail:
2Szent István University, Department of Nutrition, H-2100 Gödöllő, Páter Károly u. 1, Hungary
3MTA-KE-SZIE Mycotoxins in the Food Chain Research Group, H-6400 Kaposvár, Guba Sándor u. 40, Hungary

Abstract: In agricultural production, some tillage practices lead to a higher risk to increase the mycotoxin levels in the soil. Mycotoxins, such as T-2 toxin or deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by Fusarium spp., a plant pathogen mould, occur frequently in temperate climates. Folsomia candida is a mainly fungal feeding collembolan, which has a role in the regulation of the soil microbial community and humification. We hypothesized that F. candida is adapted to the secondary metabolites of the moulds; therefore, Fusarium mycotoxins do not have an effect on their feed intake and reproduction. OECD experiments were carried out with T-2 or DON-contaminated maize and baker’s yeast as an alternative food. An additional experiment was conducted without baker’s yeast as well as a food choice test. It was found that DON or T-2 toxin caused significant mortality. Severe impairment in reproduction was also observed, accompanied with mycotoxin contaminated feed refusal. Results of feed refusal themselves cannot be the cause of the low reproduction rate; instead, the mycotoxins most likely impair the embryonic development due to their DNA destructive properties. Additionally, DON and T-2 toxin caused feeding inhibition. Both mycotoxins are known to disturb the dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurons, which may disturb the feeding behaviour, and both trichothecenes can cause lesions in the mouth and gut, which may also resulted feed refusal.

Key words: mycotoxin, Folsomia, trichothecenes, reproduction, feed refusal

DOI: 10.17109/AZH.65.4.323.2019

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Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 65 (4), pp. 335–348, 2019

Title: Habitat use of an endangered beetle Carabus hungaricus assessed via radio telemetry

Authors: 1Sándor Bérces and 2Jana Růžičková

Authors' addresses: 1Duna–Ipoly National Park Directorate, H-1121 Budapest, Költő utca 21, Hungary; E-mail:
2MTA–ELTE–MTM Ecology Research Group, Eötvös Loránd University, Biological Institute H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/C, Hungary E-mail:

Abstract: Carabus hungaricus is an endangered habitat specialist of tall-grass steppe occurring in the Pannonian region. In this study, we used radio telemetry to examine whether habitat type (different habitat patches in steppe mosaic), sex, time of day, temperature and air pressure affect the activity of this species. During the reproductive period of C. hungaricus in October 2017, we equipped ten individuals, five males, and five females, with small 0.3 g VHF transmitters and tracked them for seven consecutive days. The average speed of tagged individuals was 1.29 m/h for the fastest individual and 0.21 m/h for the slowest one. The shape of trajectories indicated random walk; only in few cases did beetles cover larger distances between two tracking sessions. Habitat type significantly affected beetle movement; the average speed was higher in grassy patches and common juniper stands, while it decreased in mosses and litter under shrubs. Although there was no effect of sex, time of day, or air pressure on beetles’ activity, the temperature had a positive effect on movement. Beetles’ movement patterns indicated preferred patches within the assumed optimal habitat. The availability of suitable patches within steppe mosaic can be therefore crucial for the persistence of this species.

Key words: Natura 2000, insect movement, PicoPip radio-transmitters, steppe mosaic, temperature, Carabus hungaricus

DOI: 10.17109/AZH.65.4.335.2019

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Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 65 (4), pp. 349–370, 2019

Title: Red Data Book invertebrates in a protected area of European Russia

Authors: 1Alexander B. Ruchin, 1,2Anatoliy A. Khapugin

Authors' addresses: 1Joint Directorate of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve and National Park “Smolny” Krasnaya Street, 30, Saransk, Republic of Mordovia, 430005, Russia; E-mail:
2 Tyumen State University, Volodarskogo Street, 6, Tyumen, Tyumen region, 625003, Russia; E-mail:

Abstract: Protected Areas are considered as primary efforts for biodiversity conservation worldwide. However, there is a lack of data on the biodiversity and threats for most of the federal-level Russian Protected Areas, especially for invertebrates. Intensive research on invertebrate diversity in Protected Areas is highly important to obtain comprehensive knowledge for the management of natural refugia of biodiversity. In the present paper, we studied the most vulnerable component of invertebrate diversity, i.e. the Red Data Book species, in the Mordovia State Nature Reserve (European Russia). We used both new (2007–2018) and literature (1936–2006) data to obtain information on habitat preferences, year of the first record, and spatial distribution in the Protected Area for 121 invertebrate Red Data Book species known from the Mordovia State Nature Reserve. Our study demonstrated a remarkable increase in the Red Data Book invertebrate diversity as a consequence of the research intensification in the Protected Area in the last ten years. This is also related to the fact that only 1–2 records are known for a large number of species (57.9%) within the Protected Area. The highest species richness was found close to the research stations (cordons). On one hand, this highlights their significance for biodiversity research. On the other hand, it outlines the need for performing more research in less-studied areas of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve. Finally, the species currently known for Mordovia and Russia only from this Protected Area (27 and four species, respectively) highlight the importance of the Mordovia State Nature Reserve at regional and national levels.

Key words: biodiversity, habitat preference, Mordovia State Nature Reserve, nature conservation, representativeness index

DOI: 10.17109/AZH.65.4.349.2019

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Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 65 (4), pp. 371–379, 2019

Title: Weather and predation pressure: the case of the Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio)

Authors: 1Artur Golawski and 2Sylwia Golawska

Authors' addresses: 1Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Faculty of Natural Science, Department of Zoology, Prusa 14, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland; E-mail:
2Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Faculty of Natural Science, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Prusa 14, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland; E-mail:

Abstract: Breeding success in birds is seriously affected by predation, although behaviourist extent can be modified by the weather, its mechanisms are not well understood. Analysis of the breeding success of Red-backed Shrikes (Lanius collurio) in eastern Poland, which has a temperate transitional climate, showed that predation did indeed increase significantly during periods of prolonged rainfall, but that air temperature and wind speed did not affect predation significantly. As insects become less active during rainy weather, predators like Magpies (Pica pica) and Jays (Garrulus glandarius), which frequently consume such prey, then have to switch to birds’ eggs and nestlings as sources of food. In recent years, less rain has been falling in this part of Poland in the summer, so one can anticipate a higher level of breeding success in the Red-backed Shrike, if the numbers of potential predators do not increase equally quickly.

Key words: corvids, nest survival, Poland, population ecology, rainfall, Lanius collurio

DOI: 10.17109/AZH.65.4.371.2019

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Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 65 (4), pp. 381–398, 2019

Title: Sympatric wintering of Red Kites and Black Kites in south-east Europe

Authors: 1Ivan Literák, 1,2David Hora, 3Rainer Raab, 4Hynek Matušík, 1Stanislav Vyhnal, 1Dana Rymešová, 3Péter Spakovszky, 5Theodora Skartsi, 6Kostas Poirazidis, 7Sylvia Zakkak, 8Adrian Tomik and 9Mykola Skyrpan

Authors' addresses: 1Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackého tř. 1, 61242 Brno, Czech Republic E-mails:,,
2Nature Conservation Agency of the Czech Republic, Regional Office Brno, Kotlářská 51, 60200 Brno, Czech Republic; E-mail:
3Technisches Büro für Biologie Mag. Dr. Rainer Raab, Quadenstrasse 13, 2232 Deutsch-Wagram, Austria; E-mails:,
468713 Březolupy 324, Czech Republic; E-mail:
5WWF Greece, Dadia Program, 21 Lempesi str., 11743 Athens, Greece; E-mail:
6Department of Environmental Sciences, Ionian University, Minotou Gianopoulou, Panagoula, 29100, Zakynthos, Greece; E-mail:
7Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli Forest National Park, Management Body, p.o. 1413, 68400 Dadia, Greece; E-mail:
8Croatian Society for Birds and Nature Protection, I. Meštrovića 74, 31326 Darda, Croatia; E-mail:
9Ukrainian Birds of Prey Research Centre and West-Ukrainian Ornithological Society, Kiyv, Ukraine, E-mail:

Abstract: We characterized the spatiotemporal activities in winter grounds of the tagged Red Kites Milvus milvus originated from Austria, Czech Republic and Slovakia and wintering in south-east Europe. Birds arrived to winter grounds in Hungary, Croatia, and Greece from 10 July to 12 December (median 22 October) and departed from winter grounds between 14 February and 22 May (median 14 March), thus staying at winter grounds from 121 to 229 days (median 145, mean 161±43 SD). If we regarded kernel density estimate 80% (area of main foraging and roosting activities) as the best indicator as to the size of home range, we revealed that the size of a home range for Red Kites staying at one place through the entire winter was from 10 to 108 km2 (median 72, mean 60±36 SD) and that the size of home range for birds with local shift(s) in winter grounds was from 344 to 620 km2 (median 434, mean 466±115 SD). We found not only Red Kites at these places but often also Black Kites Milvus migrans. The numbers of Black Kites wintering together with Red Kites were higher than the number of Red Kites at all Greek winter grounds. At winter grounds in Hungary and Croatia, the number of Black Kites was lower than the number of Red Kites or Black Kites were wholly absent. Sympatric occurrences according to only direct observations of wintering Red and Black Kites were found also in some other locations in Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece and Hungary.

Key words: raptors, telemetry, winter grounds, home ranges, Milvus milvus, Milvus migrans

DOI: 10.17109/AZH.65.4.381.2019

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Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 65 (4), pp. 399–413, 2019

Title: Nuclear and organelle genes based phylogeny of Dryomys (Gliridae, Rodentia, Mammalia) from Turkey

Authors: 1*Teoman Kankiliç, 1Perınçek Seçkınozan Şeker, 1Burcu Aydin, 1Derya Altunbaş, 3Engın Selvı, 3Nurı Yığıt and 3Ercüment Çolak

Authors' addresses: 1Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Letters, Ömer Halisdemir University, Niğde, 51240, Turkey; E-mails:,,
2Department of Forestry, Artvin Vocational School, Artvin Çoruh University, 08000, Artvin, Turkey; E-mail:
3Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100, Ankara, Turkey; E-mails:,,

Abstract: Molecular phylogeny, phylogeography and genetic structure of the genus Dryomys Thomas, 1906 from Turkey were identified by using partial sequences of beta-fibrinogen intron 7 and mitochondrially encoded 12S ribosomal RNA genes and also combined data of two genes. Within Dryomys nitedula species, both, nuclear and mitochondrial genes coherently separated the Thrace lineage from the other lineages in Anatolia. Contrary to this, complex and incomprehensible phylogenies were recovered for Anatolian populations of this species. The analysis of the combined data of these two genes resolved mentioned complexity and incongruity and made phylogeny compatible with the results of past studies for the relative position of the Anatolian lineages. Thus, the presence of four different lineages (one in Thrace and three in Anatolia) within D. nitedula in the localities exemplified across Turkey was confirmed. Genetic differentiation (K2P distances) between the lineages were moderate at the level of intraspecific diversity. In addition to this, genetic distance (K2P = 5.5%) determined between D. nitedula and D. laniger conformed the distance suggested for the separate species of mammals. Evolutionary divergence time estimations demonstrated that the probable divergence between D. laniger and D. nitedula and among its detected lineages started in the border of Late Miocene and Pliocene (5.3 Mya) and lasted to the beginning of the Calabrian Stage of Pleistocene (1.8 Mya) in line with the previous results obtained from fossil and molecular data.

Key words: Dryomys, phylogeny, beta-fibrinogen intron 7, 12S ribosomal RNA, Turkey

DOI: 10.17109/AZH.65.4.399.2019

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